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Cyborg (Cybernetic Organism)Astrophysicists Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline coined the term cyborg in 1960, defining a cyborg as a “self-regulating, man-machine system”.

Clynes and Kline believed that attempting to recreate terrestrial conditions in space was inefficient and ineffective, like a fish taking a little cup of water with it to try to live on dry land. Instead, they proposed that astronauts should use medicine and technology to help them adapt to extraterrestrial living environments. Astronauts would then be able to travel longer and farther, and explore cosmic terrain, independent of simulated, earth-like conditions on spaceships or in spacesuits. Augmenting or replacing default physiological and mental controls would enable humans to sustain life in any environment. Clynes and Kline predicted that astronauts would eventually be able to breathe without the earth’s atmosphere—or not breathe at all!—survive sub- or super-human temperatures and pressures, live without (or with minimal) water or food, modify their heart rates, counteract the muscular atrophy and psychosis caused by inactivity, induce prolonged wakefulness or slumber, and much more. These astronauts would become cyborgs, humans enhanced through all means devisable by our intelligence. It’s not so outlandish. Since the homo sapiens emerged at least 100,000 years ago as the latest link in the evolutionary chain, our human brains have invented ways of evading danger and overcoming disease, to transcend the natural shortcomings of our evolved bodies. The last century, in particular, has brought a critical mass of miraculous breakthroughs, hurtling us with ever increasing speed beyond evolution, and towards our destiny as cyborgs.In just over a decade, the smart phone, genome sequencing, 3D printing of human body parts (even brain tissue), the advent of smart prosthetics, other neural-feedback devices, and nanotechnology have swept the developed world.Our cyborg future has nothing to do with horror stories like The Terminator or The Matrix. It’s really about saving lives, making our quality of life better, and adapting to our changing planet.Click here to read The Diabetic Cyborg article.

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Global Asset Protection Services, LLC, and its affiliates (“AXA XL Risk Consulting”) provides risk assessment reports and other loss prevention services, as requested. This document shall not be construed as indicating the existence or availability under any policy of coverage for any particular type of loss or damage. AXA XL Risk. We specifically disclaim any warranty or representation that compliance with any advice or recommendation in any publication will make a facility or operation safe or healthful, or put it in compliance with any standard, code, law, rule or regulation. Save where expressly agreed in writing, AXA XL Risk Consulting and its related and affiliated companies disclaim all liability for loss or damage suffered by any party arising out of or in connection with this publication, including indirect or consequential loss or damage, howsoever arising. Any party who chooses to rely in any way on the contents of this document does so at their own risk.

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In the US, the AXA XL insurance companies are: AXA Insurance Company, Catlin Insurance Company, Inc., Greenwich Insurance Company, Indian Harbor Insurance Company, XL Insurance America, Inc., XL Specialty Insurance Company and T.H.E. Insurance Company. In Canada, coverages are underwritten by XL Specialty Insurance Company - Canadian Branch and AXA Insurance Company - Canadian branch. Coverages may also be underwritten by Lloyd’s Syndicate #2003. Coverages underwritten by Lloyd’s Syndicate #2003 are placed on behalf of the member of Syndicate #2003 by Catlin Canada Inc. Lloyd’s ratings are independent of AXA XL.
US domiciled insurance policies can be written by the following AXA XL surplus lines insurers: XL Catlin Insurance Company UK Limited, Syndicates managed by Catlin Underwriting Agencies Limited and Indian Harbor Insurance Company. Enquires from US residents should be directed to a local insurance agent or broker permitted to write business in the relevant state.